Biomedical engineering notes – Thermo fluid dynamics

Program
Heat conduction. The heat diffusion equation. Boundary and initial conditions. Steady-state and transient conduction. The finite difference method applied to the heat equation. Forced convection. The velocity and thermal boundary layers. The convection coefficient. Laminar and turbulent flow. Dimensionless groups of forced convection. Heat transfer correlations in external and internal flows. Free convection: physical consideration and governing equations. The dimensionless groups of free convection. The effects of turbulence. Heat transfer correlations. Heat exchangers. Heat exchangers types. Design and performance calculations. Fundamentals of heat transfer in boiling and condensation. Heat transfer by radiation. Processes and properties. Radiation exchange between surfaces. Radiation exchange with participating media.

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Biomedical engineering notes

Biomedical engineering notes – Technologies for sensors and instrumentation

Program
Sensors for biomedical instrumentation: classification. Operating principles: photoelectric, thermoresistive, thermoelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, piezoresistive, magnetic, induced by radiation, adsorption and absorption of chemical species. Technology: semiconductors, ceramics, polymer films, optical fibers. Structures: impedance, semiconductor, acoustic waves, calorimetric sensors, electrochemical cells, in the optical waveguide. Applications in medicine and biology of electromagnetic radiation sensors, thermal, mechanical, chemical. Technologies of electronic instrumentation. Structure of a measuring system. Interfacing with the sensor, signal conditioning, filtering and signal processing. Analog/Digital conversion. Microprocessor-based systems for biomedical instrumentation. Hardware architectures (microcontrollers, DSP, PC-based systems), software (embedded systems, real-time operating systems, virtual instrumentation) and networking (digital communication techniques: field bus, classification and characteristics of the protocols, telemetry).
Characteristics, and principles of measurement of biomedical sensors. Semiconductors technologies. Sensors of force, pressure, motion, acceleration, temperature, humidity, gas concentration, EM radiation. Biomedical optics (photodiodes, LED, CCD, CMOS). Piezoelectric, pyroelectric and FET electrochemical sensors. Fiber optics sensors. Conditioning of sensors. Imaging systems for diagnosis (endoscopy, computed radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging, medical ultrasonography). Equipment for hemodynamic and respiratory monitoring in anaesthesia and critical care medicine. Clinical laboratory measurements (spectrometric instruments, electrochemical analysis, electrophoresis). Microscopy. Surgical and therapeutic equipment.

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Biomedical engineering notes

Biomedical engineering notes – Technologies for assisted surgery

Program
The CAS (Computer Aided Surgery) system: structure and applications. Pre-surgery phase: acquisition and processing of diagnostic images for surgical planning; multimodal fusion of diagnostic images with rigid and non-rigid transformations and extrinsic and intrinsic control points; feature extraction, volumetric reconstruction and rendering in 3-D; planning and surgical simulation. Intra-surgery phase: technologies and methods for localization, navigation and automation in surgery; stereotactic surgery; mapping between reference systems; anatomic calibration techniques; on the organ motion problem; acquisition systems of intra-surgery images; methods of detection of anatomical surfaces; recording techniques of data and intra-surgery images and pre-operators; techniques of modeling and in line compensation of organ motion.

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Biomedical engineering notes

Biomedical engineering notes – Life support systems

Program
The motion of intra- and extra-vascular biological fluids with particular reference to the rheological characteristics and the motion of fluids particulates. Diffusive and convective mass transport through porous or continuous steady-state or time-varying membranes. Active and passive transport across biological and synthetic membranes, both thin and thick. Mass exchange between blood and extravascular fluids. Flows, osmotic and electrochemical equilibrium. Facilitated diffusion through membranes via specific carrier or due to specific flow conditions. Acid-base balance. Models of organ function (brain, kidney, lung, placenta, liver). Equipment for the controlled release of drugs. Distribution models of intra- and extra-vascular fluids. Difference between support systems of vital functions intra-, extra-, para-corporeal and directions to the choice depending on the type of use and life system. Classification based on the duration of the support application. Design criteria and evaluation of supports for the cardiovascular system: counterpulsers, axial blood pumps, rotary blood pumps, assistance ventricles, artificial heart. Criteria for the design and evaluation of mechanical and circulatory support for the respiratory system: gas ventilators, iron lung, systems for liquid ventilation, partial and total extracorporeal oxygenation. Design criteria and evaluation of media for renal function: hemodialysis, hemodiafiltration, peritoneal dialysis. Criteria for the design and evaluation of media for the liver function. Supports for the pancreatic function: pumps and systems for the release of insulin, artificial pancreas. Evaluation and optimization of the machine-patient interface.

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Biomedical engineering notes

Biomedical engineering notes – Electronic design for biomedical instrumentation

Program
Electronics for the conditioning of biological signals: electrodes and sensors, analog circuits for amplification and filtering, mixed analog/digital integrated systems for bio-implantable medical devices; applications in machine vision, in DNA analysis; neuron-silicon junction. Radiation detectors and electronic instrumentation in diagnostic imaging: radiographic and tomographic systems, generation of X-rays, radioisotopes, interaction with matter, X-ray detectors for medical diagnostics and range, digital radiography, computed tomography SPECT and PET.

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Biomedical engineering notes

Biomedical engineering notes – Biomedical optics

Program
Optical radiation and biological tissues. Main endogenous and exogenous chromophores in biomedicine.Laser tissues interaction mechanisms: photochemical effects, photothermal effects and photoablation. Therapeutic applications of lasers.Fluorescence emission: basic principles. Fluorescence as a diagnostic tool. Fluorescence spectroscopy and lifetime. Fluorescence intensity and fluorescence lifetime imaging. Diagnostic applications. Tissues as turbid media. Light propagation in turbid media: theoretical models and experimental techniques. Optical properties of tissues. Absorption and scattering spectroscopy in turbid media. Back projection imaging. Optical tomography. Biomedical applications in medicine.

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Biomedical engineering notes

Biomedical engineering notes – Optoelectronics

Program
Physical and technological aspects more relevant to understand the behavior and the limitations of optoelectronics devices and systems. The performances will be studied taking into account typical applications, with a critical discussion of possible alternatives, typical performances of specific devices and how to design simple applications choosing the appropriate components. Main topics are: light sources, coherent and incoherent lasers; detectors sensitive to visible and near infrared radiation, for applications in the field of optical communications and of instrumentation for optical measurement; principles of guided optical propagation and application to telecommunications and biomedical devices.

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Biomedical engineering notes

Biomedical engineering notes – Laboratory of electronic technologies and biosensors

Program
Design and implementation in the laboratory of a device for biomedical applications. Semiconductor electronic devices: operational amplifiers, filters, converters A/D-D/A, protection and insulation circuits. Interface issues and sensor conditioning. Amplification of bioelectrical signals. Elements of digital electronics, FPGAs, microprocessors, microcontrollers, DSPs and associated development environments. Design, development and testing of electronic devices. Data transmission in the biomedical environment: communication networks. Serial protocols for wired and wireless communications. Biosensors. Wearable computing and wearable sensors. Biomedical applications of electronic technologies: diagnostic devices, life support systems, monitoring of the critically ill patient, ultrasound imaging and computer aided surgery, functional electrical stimulation, home monitoring, human computer interface.

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Biomedical engineering notes

Biomedical engineering notes – Model identification and data analysis

Program
Using “black-box” modeling techniques of systems and data processing. Analysis of stationary stochastic processes generated by dynamic systems. ARMA and ARMAX models. Prediction. Non-parametric models based on spectral characteristics of a process. Estimation methods in the minimization of prediction. Analysis and choice of complexity and parameters for models.

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Biomedical engineering notes

Biomedical engineering notes – Transport phenomena in biological systems

Program
Movement of intra- and extra-vascular biological fluids. Rheological properties and motion of fluid particles. Diffusive and convective mass transport. Active and passive transport across biological membranes. Mass exchange between blood and extravascular fluid. Flows and osmotic and electrochemical equilibrium. Facilitated diffusion and carrier. Acid-base balance models of organ function (brain, kidney, lung, placenta, liver). Equipment for the controlled release of drugs. Delivery models of intra- and extra-vascular biological fluids.

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Biomedical engineering notes