Sensors for biomedical instrumentation: classification. Operating principles: photoelectric, thermoresistive, thermoelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, piezoresistive, magnetic, induced by radiation, adsorption and absorption of chemical species. Technology: semiconductors, ceramics, polymer films, optical fibers. Structures: impedance, semiconductor, acoustic waves, calorimetric sensors, electrochemical cells, in the optical waveguide. Applications in medicine and biology of electromagnetic radiation sensors, thermal, mechanical, chemical. Technologies of electronic instrumentation. Structure of a measuring system. Interfacing with the sensor, signal conditioning, filtering and signal processing. Analog/Digital conversion. Microprocessor-based systems for biomedical instrumentation. Hardware architectures (microcontrollers, DSP, PC-based systems), software (embedded systems, real-time operating systems, virtual instrumentation) and networking (digital communication techniques: field bus, classification and characteristics of the protocols, telemetry).
Characteristics, and principles of measurement of biomedical sensors. Semiconductors technologies. Sensors of force, pressure, motion, acceleration, temperature, humidity, gas concentration, EM radiation. Biomedical optics (photodiodes, LED, CCD, CMOS). Piezoelectric, pyroelectric and FET electrochemical sensors. Fiber optics sensors. Conditioning of sensors. Imaging systems for diagnosis (endoscopy, computed radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging, medical ultrasonography). Equipment for hemodynamic and respiratory monitoring in anaesthesia and critical care medicine. Clinical laboratory measurements (spectrometric instruments, electrochemical analysis, electrophoresis). Microscopy. Surgical and therapeutic equipment.
Biomedical engineering notes