Biomedical engineering notes – Bioelectricity and bioelectromagnetism

Models and methods for analysis of membrane potentials. Cell membrane and transport phenomena through the membrane. Potential Balance. Action potential (AP). Ion channels, Voltage-clamp and extent of membrane conductance. Hodgkin-Huxley model (H-H). Run sub-threshold: Cable Equation. Run above-threshold: Propagation of the AP. Extracellular potential. Models of primary sources and volume conductors. Sources: monopole, dipole, single cell, single fiber, multiple source. Volume conductor: effect of inhomogeneities and the finished volume. Derived vector. Models of neuron networks and neurotic. The model H-H to dynamic models of single neuron models ‘integrate-and-fire’ (IF) and ‘spike-response’ (SR). Trains of pulses and neural information coding. Models of neurotic networks: structure and implementation. Methods of estimation of electric fields and electric potential distributions generated by/in biological tissues. Analytical approach: magnetic vector potential, calculating amid infinite and infinite seeds, of the reciprocity theorem applications. Numerical approach: finite difference methods FIT, FDTD low frequency. Estimation methods of electrical and magnetic fields generated by microwave biological tissues. Numerical approach: finite difference methods FIT, FDTD in the microwave range (RF). Dosimetry of RF electromagnetic fields in biological systems: the concept of SAR and calculation methods.
Electric and magnetic fields generated by biological tissues. Electrical stimulation of biological systems. Basic concepts on exogenous stimulation, electrical stimulation: basic concepts. Potential and limits, Clinical applications. Active implantable devices: pacemakers, defibrillators, cochlear implants, neural stimulators. Magnetic stimulation of the nervous system. Fundamental concepts. Potential and limits. Estimate of products fields. Control and focus of the field. Construction and technical problems of optimization of pacing devices.


Biomedical engineering notes

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